Functional orthotic therapy can be implemented to control foot biomechanics. This approach can relieve symptomatic bunions, though the foot and first metatarsophalangeal joint must maintain some degree of flexibility. Flexibility is necessary, as it allows the orthotic to manipulate the joints and foot and reduce the deformity, providing stability and thus relief. A rigid deformity can only be corrected surgically, as it can no longer be manipulated. Try resting the feet whenever possible. Avoid wearing tight and high-heeled shoes, instead choose wide shoes with low heels. For men, wearing running shoes is ideal because they have more space for the toes to move freely and also have a better cushion. There are a lot more to consider but I will not bore you, yet, with other thoughts on this common and problematic condition. If you have some queries of your own put them in the comments and I will come back to you. Relief for bunion pain can be attained by wearing wide fitting shoes, wherein the leather upper will allow a stretch. One should avoid wearing high-heeled shoes. Soft shoes will make your toe feel better and will relieve you off continual pain. Moreover, special shoes are also made to relieve pain associated with bunions. The condition most commonly manifests itself in patients aged 50 or over; however, it also frequently occurs when the patient is a teenager or in their early 20s. The patient experiences increasing pain and swelling on the inner side of the big toe producing a red, painful, tense swelling. This usually causes pain on walking and can even cause pain at rest. The deformity also means that the ball of the big toe is not positioned properly on two small bones (sesamoid bones) beneath the sole. These sesamoid bones act like two mini-knee caps for the big toe joint and normally allow the flexor tendons to act across its axis. Ignoring these symptoms can lead to chronic pain at the base of the big toe. Usually the symptoms can be diagnosed by radiographs (x-ray films) of foot. Radiographs aid in screening the intricate sections of the joints to determine if there are any underlying conditions like gout or arthritis that could be tangible bunion causes. Surgery (includes a process called bunionectomy) is done to get rid of bunions. Most procedures include removing the swollen tissue around the toe and correcting the alignment of the bone by removing the misaligned section of the protruding bone. The procedure is completed by joining the bones of the affected joint. This is why women are more prone to bunions than men because women wear high heels that puts all the pressure on the front of the foot and changes the shape of the foot by forcing the toes together in the narrow toe box. Tight shoes can actually change the structure of the foot joint. When a bunion forms at the base of the big toe, the toe joint will stick out and the big toe will be forced towards the second toe. The second toe is usually the one that will become hammered. Orthotics are available as well-these are shoe inserts that give you a more healthy step. They may relieve some of the pain and prevent the bunion from getting worse. When surgical treatment is indicated, traditional teaching has been to wait until the ossification is mature that is, when the bone scan is negative and the alkaline phosphatase level is decreasing. Many authors have recently advocated earlier resection before these tests have returned to normal. Although there are many sites on the net that will give you an overview of vaious orthopedic conditions what i can provide is an updated and unbaised suggestions with a added benefit of personal experience Reasons to undergo bunion surgery may include severe foot pain that occurs even when walking or wearing flat, comfortable shoes. Surgery may also be indicated when chronic big toe inflammation and swelling does not subside with rest or medications. Other reasons for surgery include toe deformity, a drifting in of the big toe toward the small toe, and an inability to bend and straighten the big toe. Other complications may include recurrence of the bunion, nerve damage, and continued pain. The surgery may also result in overcorrection of the problem, in which the big toe extends away from the other toes. Often times the mechanical dysfunction, such as walking, was not corrected and the same pressures on the body begin pushing from outside to inside reforming the bony defect that you once dreaded and hated. I like to think that misplaced weight on to the big toe and the rolling over the big toe keeps pushing it inwards. This is maybe a reason why after bunion surgery, bunions develop back not too long after. In addition, they stated that “interobserver variability between iPhone measurements and computer-assisted measurements was less than 2° for HVA and DMAA and less than 1° for IMA with high correlation coefficients ranging from 0.912 to 0.998.” The first metatarsal is held in alignment by a splinting action of the abductor hallucis muscle medially and by the lateral pull of the peroneus longus acting at the base of the metatarsal 4. Movement at the first MTP joint in the transverse plane is prevented by collateral ligaments running from the metatarsal epicondyles, distally and plantarly, to the proximal phalanx. DIAGNOSIS — Although hallux valgus (HV) is easily recognized by clinical examination, x-rays may be necessary to determine the presence of damage to the articular surfaces of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. Surgeons use radiographs to assess the severity of the deformity and select the appropriate procedure.